Pope Leo XIII, who is justifiably called "the second founder of the Augustinian Order," took yet another step in ensuring the survival of the Order of Saint Augustine in 1893.
In that year, he called for a General Chapter involving the entire Augustinian world.
For the first time in 103 years the Hispanic section of the Order - 300 members - were to be part of the deliberations.
At the General Chapter of 1893, the Province of Castile, whose restoration had begun in 1881 of former houses of the previous Province of Spain, was officially approved.
As well, a new Province of Madrid was approved, containing some of the houses of the Province of the Philippines that were located in Spain.
In 1926 the Province of the Holy Name of Jesus in Spain was formed, as a further growth in Spain from houses that until then had remained in the Province of the Philippines.
Thus in the 21st century there are these four Provinces operating in Spain: Castile (founded about 1256, restored and re-named in 1881), the Philippines (1575), Madrid (1895) and Spain (1926).
In 1912 the Augustinian Recollects of Spain became a distinct Order.
Previously there were autonomous from the Order of Saint Augustine, yet still under the care of the latter Order's Prior_General. After 1912 they elected a Prior_General of their own.
During the previous century, all four Provinces undertook missions, mainly in Latin America, the Philippines and China, and continue to do so in the 21st century.
One Spanish Augustinian in China, Abilio Gallego O.S.A. was executed by Communist militia in 1933.
The Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) was a time of great difficulty for the Church, and for priests and religious in particular. During that War, sixty-five Augustinian friars from the monastery of El Escorial were executed.
This included the Augustinian Provincial (regional superior), Avelino Rodríguez O.S.A., and the Assistant General (assistant world leader), Mariano Revilla O.S.A..
In all, five groups of Spanish Augustinian friars totalling 180 men gave their lives in witness to their Christian faith during the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939).
The Spanish provinces were inspired to increase their number of members to even higher levels in the years that followed.
Members from Spain have been the Prior General of the Order on two occasions in recent years: Luciano Rubio O.S.A. (1959 - 1965), and Miguel Angel Orcasitas O.S.A. (1989 – 2001).
Late in 2011 discussion took place among the four Augustinian Provinces based in Spain about the possibility of their amalgamating into a single Spanish Province. It was resolved that the matter will be pursued so that it might be presented as a proposal to the Order's international General Chapter in 2016.
(1936-1939). This was a time of great difficulty for the Church in general, and for priests and friars in particular. More than 7000 priests, friars and nuns were martyred. Their crime: being a priest or religious. In addition, more than 3500 lay persons were martyred in witness to their Christian faith. Besides Blessed Anselm Polance O.S.A. who was martyred in 19369 , six groups of Augustinian friars totalling 98 men, gave their lives in witness to their Christian faith.